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圣训中提到的笋奈4-2

 

    根据艾布麦斯欧德·辅士(愿主喜悦之)传述,安拉的使者(愿主福安之)说:“人们中最会诵读安拉的经典的人应为领拜师,如果他们的诵读方面都一样,那么他们当中最了解笋奈(先知的道路)的人应为领拜师。如果他们在了解笋奈方面也一样难分高低时,那么他们中最早迁徙的人应为领拜师。”穆斯林辑录。

    白师而欧斯玛尼说:“人们当中有一部分人在宗教操守,知识水平,优越性各个方面旗鼓相当,难分高低而导致谁为伊玛目成了相互争论的矛盾点,并且需要评估挑选之时,就应遵照这段圣训的要求标准,就让最精通《古兰经》者优先。这里精通诵读的意思是指在诵读的同时领会单词的意义,精通经典的法律,正如圣门弟子和前辈的学者那样,他们最精通诵读的人就是他们中的学者。在被诅咒的井和也玛麦战役中提到的正是精通诵读的同时也精通经典的含义和法律。

    诵读经典,知其含义,精通其法律必须建立在了解认识先知(愿主福安之)的笋奈的基础上,因为先知(愿主福安之)就是解释说明《古兰经》的导师。同样精通笋奈必须要了解《古兰经》中它的出处。所以《古兰经》学和圣训学是并驾齐驱的。但是由于学术专业不同,有的学者侧重《古兰经》学,他们集中精力研究古兰学,如伊本·阿巴斯、欧办伊·本·克尔布等,有的学者侧重圣训研究,他们的大部分精力则投入在探索笋奈,落实圣训,理解研究其义当中,因而圣训成了他的专科,如艾布胡莱勒,一本·欧麦尔等。如果要从上述两种人中选一个领拜师,那么就优先选择古兰学专业,因为《古兰经》优先于其余的证据,这个原则证明让精通它的人优先于其它学科的人,这是因为颂扬《古兰经》的尊贵,鼓励人们学习《古兰经》。因为安拉会凭《古兰经》提升一伙人。如果人们在《古兰经》学方面难分高低,就从其中选择精通圣训的人为领拜师。

    根据一本·阿巴斯(愿主喜悦之)传述,他说:安拉的使者(愿主福安之)在辞朝演讲中说:“的确,恶魔已经绝望在你们的大地上受到崇拜,但是他很高兴在你们认为微不足道的工作中你们顺服他,所以你们当警防!的确,我给你们留下了两样东西,只要你们紧紧抓住就永不会迷路,安拉的经典和使者的笋奈。”哈肯辑录并评为正确圣训。

    根据阿尔沃(愿主喜悦之)传述,他说:“我问了阿伊莎,请你告诉我这段经文的意思:‘的确,索法和麦尔沃是安拉的标志,奉行大朝或小朝的人,无妨游此两山。自愿行善者(必得善报),因为真主是厚报的,确是全知的。’(黄牛章:158)誓以安拉,不在索法和麦尔沃之间奔走是无妨的。然后,她说:‘我的外甥啊!假如按照你的解释,确是不游这两山无妨,但这段经文针对辅士们下降了。……的确安拉的使者制定了它俩之间奔跑,所以任何人不能放弃。’”布哈里辑录。

    一本·哈杰儿解释阿伊莎的话——安拉的使者制定了在它俩之间奔跑时说:“阿伊莎说了笋奈这词,这里的笋奈的意思是必须的制定即主命,她的意思并不是否定其为主命,穆斯林辑录的一段圣训可以支持这种解释,使者(愿主福安之)说:‘……安拉不全美你们中的任何人的正朝和副朝,只要他没在索法和麦尔沃之间奔跑。’”

    根据艾布赛尔德胡德勒(愿主喜悦之)传述,他说:“两个人出门在外,然后拜功时间到了,但没水洗小净,,然后他俩就做了土净,做了礼拜,然后他俩在礼拜时间还没结束的情况下找到了水,其中一个人重新做了礼拜和小净,另一个没做。然后他俩来到安拉的使者(愿主福安之)跟前叙述了整个过程。然后使者(愿主福安之)对没有重新礼拜的人说:‘你尊行了笋奈,你的拜功已经成立了。’他对那个洗了小净重礼了拜功的人说:‘你会获得两次的报酬。’”艾布达吾德辑录。

    《米尔嘎提》的作者说:“‘你遵行了笋奈’这句圣训中的笋奈一词的意思是以笋奈而确定的教法章程,即你的做法与教法判定完全相符,这是对他的演绎推理的确定,同时否定了另一个人的推理。”

    根据一本·阿巴斯(愿主喜悦之)传述,的确安拉的使者(愿主福安之)把七个人合宰一峰骆驼或合宰一头牛为笋奈(指在宰牲节时的献牲)艾哈迈德以优美的线索传述。

    根据一本·阿巴斯(愿主喜悦之)传述,他说:“但凡安拉的使者规定的笋奈我都知道,除非三点:一:我不知道在晌礼和脯礼中念了没有;二:我不知道他是怎样读安拉的这段经文(وقد بلغت من الكبر عتيا أوعسيا),;一本·阿巴斯说:‘我忘了第三处。’”

    根据艾布胡莱勒(愿主喜悦之)传述,他说:“胡白布为所有被浮后而杀害的穆斯林把两拜作为了笋奈。”

    一本·哈杰儿盖斯托俩尼说:“胡白布的行为成为了笋奈,因为他的这一行为(被处决前他礼了两拜)发生在先知(愿主福安之)在世的时候,先知(愿主福安之)赞美了这一行为。”在他解释另一个传述时说:“……先知(愿主福安之)默许了。”毫无怀疑这两拜是可佳的圣行,因为先知(愿主福安之)的默许。

    至于前面提到的一本·阿巴斯传述的圣训,明确的说明笋奈包括教法规定或许可的所有法律,如主命、必定事项、可佳的圣行、许可事项,甚至学习掌握教法阻止、禁止的所有事项也被纳入了笋奈的范畴。在先知(愿主福安之)在世时,笋奈的这个意思是众所周知的——对于所有穆斯林来说。

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